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1904 Agreement Between Britain And France

Opublikowano: Kwiecień 7th, 2021 by foto-klinika |

The French term Entente Cordiale (most often translated into cordial understanding) came from a letter to his brother from the British Foreign Minister, Lord Aberdeen, in 1843, in which he spoke of a “cordial and good understanding” between the two nations. This was translated into French as Entente Cordiale and used by Louis Philippe I this year in the French Chamber. [4] Today, when used, it almost always refers to the second Cordial Agreement, that is, the written and partially secret agreement signed on 8 April 1904 in London between the two powers. The conflict between Germany and the new allies was known as the first Moroccan crisis – a second occurred in the summer of 1911, when France and Germany sent troops to Morocco – and led to a hardening and consolidation of the Cordial Agreement, because Britain and France, in order to deal with German aggression, went from mere friendship to an informal military alliance and then moved on to talks and an agreement with Russia, an ally of France. In 1912, two powerful and hostile blocs formed in Europe, with France, Britain and Russia on the one hand, and an increasingly isolated Germany – with relatively lukewarm support from Austria-Hungary and Italy – on the other. Two years later, this unstable situation would withdraw from the First World War. From its entry into the political lexicon, this “warm understanding” proved precarious, entangled in the complex fabric of imperial and commercial relations of each nation. As historian R.J. Bullen points out in his analysis of the Cordial Agreement, the new “warm understanding” marked two very different types of foreign policy in England. According to the cops, Lord Aberdeen, who was foreign minister between 1841 and 1846, pursued a conservative foreign policy that tended to emphasize mutual trust and understanding and underlined Britain`s commitments to Europe. But as the cops also suggest, Lord Palmerston, who served as minister of foreign affairs between 1835-141 and 1846-1851, was wary of Aberdeen`s insistence on mutual trust and understanding. Such confidence, Palmerston feared, would undermine England as an imperial power by placing “England in the position of .

. . in submission to the views of France” and oblige the English to act as “simple young feet of France” (qtd. in bulls 30-1). As a result of his fears that England would become France`s puppet, Palmerston adopted a more aggressive, interventionist view of France as an enemy to be contained in order to enable England to pursue its own objectives on the continent. As the cops show, Palmerston`s view of the Agreement was largely won against Aberdeen. The aggressiveness of Palmerston`s foreign policy would have a lasting effect on Anglo-French relations and would fuel both the fears that remained in England and the hostilities between the two nations that temporarily erupted during the rest of the 19th century. With the Cordial Agreement, the two powers reduced the virtual isolation in which they had retreated – France involuntarily, Britain complacent – while they observed each other on African issues. Britain had no major ally of power except Japan (1902) and it would be pointless for war to break out in European waters; France had nothing but Russia, which was soon discredited in the Russo-Japanese War of 1904/05. The agreement was upsetting for Germany, whose policy has long insisted on relying on Franco-British antagonism.